NameCloxacillin
Classes Anti-infective Agent
Antibiotic
Penicillin
Diseases Infectious Disease
Osteomyelitis
RTI (Respiratory Tract Infection)
UTI (Urinary Tract Infection)
Wound

Cloxacillin

Cloxacillin is a beta lactamase resistant beta lactam antibiotic that kills bacteria by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis.

Cloxacillin is indicated for infections caused by the following penicillin resistant or sensitive species of bacteria-

  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcus epidermidis

Adults:

  • 250 to 500 mg every 6 hours for mild to moderate illnesses.
    Because the presence of food in the stomach and small intestine decreases absorption, it should be taken 1 to 2 hours before meals.
  • Continue therapy for at least 5 days.
  • For really serious infections, higher doses may be required.
  • A dose of 6 g per day should not be exceeded.

Children:

  • 250 mg per day for up to 5 kg of body weight.
  • 50 mg/kg/day for those weighing more than 5 kg and up to about 40 kg. The total daily dose must be divided into four doses, one every six hours.

Side effects associated with cloxacillin are-

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting 
  • Diarrhea
  • Dyspepsia
  • Fever
  • Rash
  • Eosinophilia
  • Phlebitis
  • Candidiasis and other superinfections may occur if used for a long time.
  • During long-term therapy, renal, hepatic and hematopoietic functions should be checked periodically.
  • Cautious administration of the drug to neonatal patients and frequent evaluation of organ system function is recommended.
  • The passage of any penicillin from blood into brain is facilitated by inflamed meninges and during cardiopulmonary bypass. In the presence of such factors, particularly in renal failure when high serum concentrations can be attained, central nervous system adverse effects including myclonia, convulsive seizures and depressed consciousness can be expected.

Contraindication

Contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to cloxacillin or other beta lactam antibiotics-